Platelet Indices as a Predict Markers of Thrombocytopenia Associated with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Thrombocytopenia is a condition characterized by abnormal decrease of platelet count in the blood; leukemia is one of its causes. This study dealt with platelet indicators that are not commonly used in pathological fields. In addition to the platelet count (PLT), the indicators included: mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), plateletcrit (PCT), and platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR). This study verified the importance of the indicators by estimating ineffective platelet production in patients with Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and Acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The study included 28 patients with acute leukemia, they were 11 with ALL (age: 25.64±14.76 years old) and 17 with AML (age: 31.59 ±13.49 years old), in addition 15 normal individuals as control. The blood samples were collected from them. The patients were significantly (p<0.0001) decreased in WBC, RBC, Hb, MPV, PLT, PCT, while significantly higher (p<0.05) in P-LCR, and PDW as compared with the control. Also, these parameters a higher significant when compared between ALL and AML patients, except WBC, PLCR, and PDW showed no significant differences between these patients. ROC test showed that MPV and PLC have higher area under curve (0.763, sensitivity=0.65, specificity=0.36 (p<0.005), and 0.940, sensitivity=0.82, specificity=0.18 (p<0.0001) respectively, for discriminating the leukemia and control. A negative (p <0.001) correlation among platelet counts with MPV (r= -0.670), PLC (r= -0.666), PLCR (r= -0.701), and PDW (r= -0.705), also a positive correlation between them of platelet indices in leukemia patients.
Conclusion: MPV and PLC, a potential marker more than P-LCR and PDW help in predicting leukemia patients as severing thrombocytopenia.