The joint capsule is formed by an external fibrous cover and an internal cover or sinovial. The latter very vascularised and inervated.

The sinovial liquid has the capacity to bear load, lubricate, and hydrate joint surfaces. It is a good conductive material of heat and elasticity and it also has the capacity of spontaneously increasing its consistency when facing an impact.

Joint cartilage consists of 3 layers. A superficial layer of tangential collagen fibres with regeneration capacity.

An intermediate layer in which fibres are S-shaped forming a spiral and forming a net with a lot of aqueous content.

A base layer, deep, narrow, calcified, compact with fibres in radial disposition to the osseous area connected to the adjacent bone.

Nutrition of the cartilage is done through diffusion and is supplied by capillary vascular beds, both sinovial and osseous.

The round ligament helps to fix the head of the femur to the acetabulus.

Joint components
(Baum u. Zietzschmann,1936)
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